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Citing Internet Sources and Online Databases

Important Note

Citing sources found through the Internet can be confusing. All that glitters isn’t gold, and everything you find through the Internet is not cited the same. First decide what you have, and then match it to the nearest example. Remember—the information is only as good as the source!

Here are some general guidelines for citing material found through the Internet and online databases:

  1. Decide what type of electronic source you have (web page? library database? online book? magazine or newspaper? reference work?).
  2. Find the closest example in the section below.
  3. Follow that format as closely as you can. You won’t always find everything! Be sure to look for the date the document/site was put on the web and who the producer/publisher is (both are often found at the very end of the item or bottom of the web page).
  4. Then add the date you found the material.
Note: Never give page numbers for web sites because these exist only on the screen, not in print.

Web Site with NO Author and NO Document Title

Skateboarding Online. {Name or title of site italicized} Martin Industries, {Company or organization
     doing the posting, often found at the very end of the web page}
Apr. 2009. {Date posted on web,
     often found at the very end of the web page}
Web. {Medium type} 3 Aug. 2009. {Date you
     accessed the site}


Web Site WITH Author and Document Title

Humboldt, Jessica. “Skateboarding and You.” Skateboarding Online. Martin Industries, 2008. Web. 5
     May 2009.


Web Site WITH Document Title Only

“Skateboarding Made Easy.” Skateboarding Online. Martin Industries, 2009. Web. 11 Feb. 2009.


Government Website

United States. {Name of federal, state, or local government} U.S. Department of Labor. Office of
     Labor Programs. {Name of agency or department} Occupational Outlook Handbook. {Name of
     publication italicized}
Oct. 2008. {Date posted on the web} Bureau of Labor Statistics. {Electronic
Web. {Electronic medium} 24 Oct. 2009.


Scholarly Journal Article Found through LIBRARY Database

Brown, John O. {Author} “What to Do When All of Your Company’s Experts Have Been Downsized.“
     {Title of article or item in quotes} Quality Progress {Name of journal italicized} 12.3 {Volume and
      issue number for scholarly journals only}
(2007): 15–27. {page range, if given; if no pages given
     use n. pag.}
WilsonSelect Plus. {Database name italicized} Web. {Medium type} 28 May 2009.
     {Date you accessed this source}


Popular Magazine Article Found through LIBRARY Database

Challenger, James E. {If you don’t have an author, begin with the title of the article in quotes}
     “Downsizing Is Bad for Business.” USA Today Jan. 2006: 66–69. {Pages of the original article}
     InfoTrac Onefile. Web. 22 Feb. 2009.


Newspaper Article Found through LIBRARY Database

“Brother Governors Steal GOP Spotlight: George Bush’s Sons See Lessons in Wins.” {Begin with the
     article title in quotes because no author is given.}
Boston Globe 19 Nov. 2008: A11. Lexis-Nexis.
     Web. 22 Feb. 2009.


Article in Online Encyclopedia

Jones, John. “Jobs for Today’s Community College Graduates.” Americana Online. Encyclopedia
     Americana, 2008. Web. 15 Aug. 2009.

“Poe, Alexander.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, 2009. Web. 18 June


Article in CQ Researcher

Housman, Chad. “Ingredients and Styles in Modern Cuisine.” CQ
17.2 (2007): 55–58. CQ Researcher Online. Web. 2 Feb. 2009.


Article in Opposing Viewpoints, Taking Sides, or Pro Con

Boomer, Steven. “Obesity among U.S. Children.” Health. Ed. John Stevenson. San Diego, CA:
     Greenhaven, 2007. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Web. 22 Nov. 2009.

Fosse, Susan. “Children and Their Eating Habits.” Parents and Infants Magazine 13 Oct. 2008: 22–23.
     Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Web. 22 Nov. 2009.


Electronic Books

Shahan, Sherry. Dashing through the Snow: The Story of the Jr. Iditarod. Brookfield, CT.: Millbrook,
     1997. NetLibrary. Web. 10 Apr. 2009.
SUNY Press E-Book Collection
Sherraden, Margaret S., Cynthia K. Sanders, and Michael Sherraden. Kitchen Capitalism. Albany: U of
     New York P, 2004. SUNY Press E-Book Collection. Web. 14 May 2009.
ACLS Humanities E-Book Project
Thomson, Alistair. Anzac Memories: Living with the Legend. Melbourne: Oxford UP, 1994. ACLS
     Humanities E-Book Project.
Web. 8 June 2009.
Gale Virtual Reference Library (Citation of a specific entry from an e-book, with page numbers)
“Wireless Systems Integrator.” Business Plans Handbook. Ed. Jacqueline K. Mueckenheim. Vol. 9.
     Detroit: Gale, 2002. 423–450. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 19 Oct. 2009.
Credo Reference (Citation of a specific entry from an e-book, without page numbers)
“Juarez, Benito (Pablo) 1806–1872.” Chambers Biographical Dictionary. London: Chambers, 2003.
     Credo Reference. Web. 3 May 2009.



Article or Document Found Directly on Internet

Scholarly Article
Fallon, Nicolas. “Community College Students Compete Well.” National Community College Journal
     5.3 (Mar. 2009): 22–32. Web. 2 Oct. 2004.
General Magazine Article
“Study While You Party.” {Begin with article title if no author given} Time. Time, June 2007. Web. 6
     Sept. 2008.
Newspaper Article
Miser, Fred. “How to Finance Your Education.” New York Times. New York Times, 5 May 2008. Web.
     6 Jan. 2009.
Online Book
Pasquale, Charles. Failure of Men. Boston, 2008. Google Books Search. Web. 2 May 2009.